Top 5 Habits of Thin People

If you think that thin people are lucky and were just born that way, think again. Most thin people that you see actually make an effort to maintain a healthy weight through a series of daily habits that you too can adopt. Even if you’re struggled with your weight in the past, by changing your ways now you can lose weight and keep it off for good.

They eat everything in moderation and don’t deprive themselves

Thin people don’t deprive themselves of the foods that they enjoy (in fact, they enjoy eating just as much as anyone), but they do always practice moderation. That means that while you can have the occasional treat, it would just be a piece of chocolate, not the whole bar. So, thin people indulge in their favorite foods or treats, but within certain limits. This issue of moderation is one of the main differences between people that struggle with their weight and people that don’t. You should be able to enjoy a couple chips without eating the entire bag, or be able to have one glass of wine and stop.

They have food rules

Now, although naturally thin people do eat their favorite foods (even unhealthy ones) in moderation, they do have some food rules (i.e. things that they generally do not eat). For example, you may decide that you don’t eat fried foods, or you don’t drink soda, or you don’t eat processed baked goods. Thin people naturally create food rules for themselves based on foods that they deem to be dangerous to weight maintenance or health, and follow these rules the majority of the time. Having food rules helps you make better choices since you know that some unhealthy options should be off limits. That being said, thin people also don’t have too many food rules as they would constitute as deprivation, so just pick one or two and stick with it.

They eat slowly and avoid feeling stuffed

Eating until you’re stuffed is not a habit of thin people, so if this is someone you do, you’ll need to stop now if you want to change your ways. Thin people eat slowly, and stop when they feel satisfied (not full). In fact, the feeling of being very full makes naturally thin people feel uncomfortable, which is why they rarely allow themselves to reach that point. So, make sure you eat slowly (it takes your body about 20 minutes to register whether or not it is full or not), and also be sure to stop eating before you feel full. Thin people will more often than not eat too little rather than eat too much.

They always eat a healthy breakfast

If you skip breakfast on a regular basis, you should know that this is not a habit of a thin person. That’s because they know that breakfast is an important meal for regulating energy and hunger, which helps them make good food choices throughout the day. For these reasons, healthy and slim people always have a satisfying breakfast that includes fiber, protein and carbohydrates. Plus, thin people tend to eat a light dinner the night before, so they are usually hungry in the morning. If you never feel hungry in the morning that could be a sign that you are eating too much in the evening, which is definitely not a habit of thin people.

They lead active lifestyles

The final main difference between people that struggle with their weight and people that do not is that thin people tend to be more active. Even if they work at a desk all day, they find excuses to get up and move around several times throughout the day, or they may take a walk on their lunch break, or make a point of doing regular fitness (whether they go to the gym or have an active hobby), and they also don’t turn into couch potatoes when they get home. They probably cook, clean, garden, or do other activities in the home that also keep them relatively active.

Following the habits of thin people is a great way to lose weight and keep it off long term. Some of the specific habits you should follow include: eating slowly, never eating until you’re stuffed, being active, eating breakfast, having food rules, and practicing moderation. In general, with time, effort and patience it is possible to adopt these habits with a little dedication and self-discipline.

Things That Can Trigger Unhealthy Eating

It’s something that happens to us all. After a few weeks of being good by exercising and eating right, we decide it’s time to treat ourselves. That usually means unhealthy eating. No big deal, right? Well, that’s true if you can control yourself. But depending on what type of food you choose to reward yourself, you could be in for a bad food binge even if eating healthy is a long-ingrained habit.

Foods as Drugs

Thinking about the foods you eat like you might think about street drugs may seem quite a stretch. But when you understand how certain foods affect your system, it really does make sense.

Some unhealthy foods can not only be addictive, but can act as a path to even unhealthier food choices, much like some drugs – called ‘gateway’ drugs – can lead to the usage of more serious drugs.

When you ingest those unhealthy ‘reward foods’, which are usually sugary, fatty or both, your brain processes them as it would any other drug, releasing dopamine into the system to enhance your experience. And what ends up happening is your eating can get out of control. In fact, even thinking about your favorite food can send your brain into reward mode. The ability to taste the food you’re eating serves to further compound the problem, as all of your senses become involved.

In your liver, reward food results in insulin production. More insulin in your system results in you feeling like you need more of that food.

The Unhealthy Eating Gene

If you find it especially difficult to control your intake of unhealthy foods, a gene may be partially to blame. A recent study revealed that over 60% of people carry this gene, named FTO. The good news is, however, that even though the gene is linked to obesity, it doesn’t seem to have any effect on the activity level of those who carry it, which means that exercise is not a barrier.

For those who carry the gene, it may be more difficult to adopt a healthier lifestyle through eating better and exercising, simply because the signals are stronger to do just the opposite.

Common Unhealthy Eating Triggers

Whenever you feel stress is a prime time to reach for something unhealthy. Whether it’s at work or home, stress triggers cortisol, commonly known as the ‘fat hormone’, which some say is responsible for excess belly fat. The release of cortisol sends your brain the message that your body needs something sweet and fattening to make things better.

You may have the most organized grocery shopping list around, but hitting the store to stock up can also lead to unhealthy eating. Maybe that new cookie you saw on TV is on sale this week. Or that chocolate ice cream may look more tempting than it did on your last trip.

Any kind of exercise can result in you feeling entitled to reward yourself. And that’s just when many of us rush to the nearest fast-food place for a quick fuel-up. Not only is it reward food, but it can fill you up fast, too.

Staying On the Healthy Eating Track

There are a few things you can do to avoid unhealthy eating at vulnerable times. Forgiving yourself for your unhealthy eating sins is the best initial move you can make. Understanding that you are only human doesn’t excuse your bad behavior, but it does allow you to acknowledge it so that you can move on.

If you’re knee-deep in chocolate sundae and find you feel bad about what you’re eating, put it down and replace it with something healthy. Stopping mid-binge to opt for a healthy alternative is perfectly okay to do. Plus, it can be empowering to physically take control of what you’re eating.

Redirecting your thoughts when cravings hit can be another way to avoid eating unhealthily. Try engaging your brain with the same tactics used to overcome other craving types; try finishing that Sudoku puzzle, or try to count from 20 to 1.

Overcoming unhealthy eating habits may not be something that’s considered to be easy, but it certainly isn’t impossible when you have a wealth of tactics at your disposal to try.

How to Drop Weight Fast Without the Torture of Fad Diets!

If you’re like most people struggling to lose weight, you’re probably seriously interested in learning how to drop weight fast without the torture of starvation diets.

Well, you’re in luck because you should know that there are a few key ways to jump start weight loss and get rid of the water weight in your body that can help you to get off to a great start.

Dropping those initial pounds quickly up front will help to keep you motivated to continue on your weight loss journey, without you being one of the statistics who end up quitting.

So here are some great tips if you are wondering how to reduce weight quickly…

How to Drop Weight Fast: The Beginning

Weight Loss Cleanse

As you probably already know, many of the top diets jump start weight loss with a “cleanse” period, where you end up consuming high quantities of fiber and liquids, such as prunes, celery, grapefruits and so on.

This can help to detoxify the body and get all of the excess “junk” from out of your intestinal tract. Believe me, you will feel so healthy and invigorated when you start eating these “cleansing” foods and get your system running at peak performance!

Low Carb Induction

Other diets even start off by inducing what’s known as a “ketogenic” state in order to burn a lot of fat in the first few weeks of the diet. This is done by restricting the amount of carbohydrates that you consume throughout the day, usually keeping them under 50g per day.

Powerful Weight Loss Supplements

And yet there is another approach to kick-starting your diet through the use of powerful weight loss supplements. In this instance, you can speed up your weight loss by using natural herbal weight loss supplements such as Phen375.

Phen375 has been referred to as the most powerful legal diet pill on the market my many happy customers from all over the world. Phen375 not only can help you to increase your metabolism, it also can help you to curb your hunger pangs and control your cravings.

Fast is Great for Starters…

But what you should keep in mind is that long term weight loss is the goal you should be aiming for. This is especially true if you are one of the more than 50% of North Americans who are considered overweight or obese.

So the sooner you discover how to drop weight fast, the sooner you will be able to avoid serious medical issues related to the metabolic syndrome, such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, a bad thyroid, high blood pressure, stress and even depression.

How to Drop Weight Fast is not the Big Picture

The one thing that you have to keep in mind is that “fast” is a very relative term when it comes to weight loss. The most effective weight loss is one that takes place over the period of a few months or even years, especially in the case of someone who is extremely overweight or obese.

It’s not uncommon when beginning a new diet to lose anywhere between 10-15lbs or more in the first few weeks, but keep in mind that in most cases this will plateau out to a steady rate of 1-3lbs per week if you stick to the plan.

Ultimately, your main goal should be to hit your target.

Create a Long Term Plan

Therefore, the most effective way for how to drop weight fast is more of creating a long term plan than anything else. This is why it’s crucially important that you find a diet that you can actually stick with.

It’s no good imposing a strict regimen of food that you absolutely loathe on yourself, because you will not be able to maintain this in the long term and you will fail in your dietary goals. It takes incredible willpower and not everyone is gifted with this.

Don’t Make this Mistake!

This might go against the grain of most of the popular diet plans but do not limit or cut out foods that you love, but are unhealthy. This will only cause you to regress and cheat more often than necessary.

Enjoy your holidays with your family and keep these events as a treat, so that you do not get depressed with your diet. If you love soda, for example, consider switching to diet soda or just having it once or twice a month instead.

Many people cannot abide water, so you can sweeten it with sucralose and other artificial sweetener based products and drink that instead of sodas.

The Key is a Lifestyle Change

The ultimate key is to pick a diet that becomes a lifestyle for you. Consult with your doctor and share your family history and cultural background — discuss the foods that you love and would find hard to give up and figure out a reasonable plan that works for long term weight loss.

Therefore, trying to figure out how to drop weight fast is less an issue of a drastic change in your lifestyle, but more a steady process that involves healthy diet choices and regular exercise.

5 Fast Weight Loss Tips that Work!

If you are frustrated with the lack of results from your current weight loss program and want a few fast weight loss tips that don’t involve either marathon workout sessions or starvation diets that cause you to fail, then this is the article for you!

You see, the majority of people trying to drop weight fast find that there is a serious need for lifestyle changes.

This is because they realize that all progress is destroyed once you go off of your diet or current program.

And that’s what fast weight loss is all about; a quick lifestyle adjustment.

Just by implementing a few important changes to your current diet and fitness program, you can seriously jumpstart your weight loss without any type of grueling effort.

So here are five fast weight loss tricks that will surely help you on your way.

1. Walk the Walk

I want to make something clear here: A 40 minute walk is 10x’s more effective for burning belly fat than a 40 minute run.

“How could that be?” you say…

Well, I wouldn’t be surprised if you asked that question because most people are dumbfound when I tell them that walking is far more effective for fast weight loss than jogging.

You see, jogging or running is an anaerobic activity in which your body is burning stored muscle glycogen for fuel. On the other hand, walking at a brisk pace and keeping your heart rate at about 70% of your maximum will actually tap into your belly fat stores for energy.

It does this by increasing your heart rate to a level that is just enough for you to burn fat. This will also actually help to keep your heart rate elevated even after the activity is stopped.

And isn’t this the ultimate goal?

Walking is also great stress-buster to. Taking a walk when you have a lot on your mind or after a rough day at work will help to relax you and put you in a more positive state.

2. Divide and Conquer

Here is one of the easiest tricks for fast weight loss ever imaginable. It requires the least amount of effort and you don’t even need to give up the foods that you enjoy.

Are you ready?

Simply divide your meal portions in half. Yeah that’s it; pretty easy!

So with this tip you don’t even need to give up all of your favorite foods like pasta, pizza or even that piece of delicious cheesecake.

All you need to do is take your meal and literally divided in half. Now if you’re eating out at a restaurant for example, have the server box up the leftover portion of your meal and you could eat it for lunch the next day.

Here’s an important tip: Don’t sabotage yourself and eat your leftovers as a midnight snack. That would be defeating the purpose!

Dividing your meals in half will not only have an immediate effect on your weight, it’s going to help to install new habits into your weight loss psyche. You’ll soon become accustomed to eating smaller portions of food and in turn the actual size of your stomach will start to shrink.

This way you are going to feel fuller faster with every meal, thus reducing your overall caloric intake for the day.

And you know what this equates to; weight loss!

3. Sleep Like a Sheep

Did if you ever stop and think how important sleep really is? Believe it or not, getting a good night’s rest is extremely important not only for the proper regeneration of your body’s cells but it’s also important to keep your metabolism running smoothly.

When your sleep is deep and undisturbed, your body is going to release all important growth hormone which helps your body to metabolize fat and keep you lean. Getting the proper rest you need also helps you to be more energized and pepped-up the next day, allowing you to put forth the effort needed to burn more calories throughout the day.

When you wake up refreshed in the morning, you are going to be full of energy and ready to take that walk that we talked about earlier and put forth your best effort to get the highest calorie burn.

Do you see how everything works together?

4. Stop Procrastinating!

I know what you’re thinking; what the heck does procrastination have to do with losing weight?

Well, when you procrastinate, you tend to put off super important things that need to be done now. And what happens when you have a list of tasks and important things that you needed to do like yesterday start to pile up?

Well that produces stress!

And we all know what stress does when you’re trying to lose weight. Stress grinds your weight loss to an absolute halt because it causes your body to release massive amounts of cortisol. This contributes to and causes your body to actually store fat within the cell.

So if you stop procrastinating and start getting things done, you’ll drastically reduce the amount of stress in your life and thus you will stop storing fat and start burning it.

So quit putting things off and get them done now 😉

5. Stay Hydrated for Fast Weight Loss

Did you know that drinking plenty of cool crisp water will help to hydrate your cells and help to detoxify your body? This is extremely important in the weight loss process because keeping properly hydrated will help to keep your cells free from nasty toxins and help your body to function at peak levels.

Remember that healthy cells equal healthy weight loss.

Now, I prefer to drink natural spring water with a little bit of fresh lemon squeezed in for flavor. Some people, on the other hand, prefer to drink coffee or tea for the extra added energy boost that you get from the caffeine.

While I do agree the caffeine can help you to burn more calories throughout the day, the amount of acid in both coffee and tea could have a detrimental effect on your body. Remember you want your body to be in an alkaline state, not acidic.

So if you’re looking for that extra energy boost you can take high-powered diet pills such as Phen375 fat burners. These can give you the extra edge in weight loss that you need to get you down into that new size of jeans… without making your body acidic I might add.

Put These Fast Weight Loss Tips to the Test!

So there you have it, five fast weight loss tips and tricks that will seriously blast your efforts to new heights for serious weight loss that you can see not only on the scale but also in the mirror

Nutrient Essentials and Where to Get them Naturally

In a healthy diet, it is not enough to simply just eat. You must make sure you get enough of the right vitamins and nutrients. While supplements can supply some of the necessary nutrients, the best way to obtain nutrients is to eat the food they come naturally in. Regardless of what you eat, try to vary your diet so that you will obtain as many necessary nutrients as possible. Now, lets take a quick look at the most important nutrients below:

Calcium

There are many different types of vitamins that the body needs. One of them, calcium, is very important. Calcium helps regulate the passage of nutrients through cell walls. It makes it easier for your body to retain the nutrients it needs. If you do not receive enough calcium, your body will automatically take it from the calcium in your bones. Over time, your bones will weaken. Calcium deficiency may result in diseases like osteoporosis. However, if you simply get enough calcium, you will be less likely to face this problem. Adults need about 1000 milligrams per day, while children need about 800 milligrams. There are many foods you can get calcium from. Milk and dairy products seem like the most obvious, however, most fruits, vegetables, beans, and nuts have calcium. Some examples with more calcium than usual are pomegranates, celery, and almonds.

Magnesium

This important nutrient is not as well-known as others, but it is just as important. Magnesium is needed for many tasks such as creating new cells, blood clotting, and producing energy. Magnesium is also required for insulin secretion. Without enough, you may experience fatigue, muscle weakness, and insomnia. Adults need around around 400 milligrams per day, while children need less. Many fruits, such as bananas, watermelon, and raspberries have magnesium. Nuts are also a good group of food to obtain magnesium from.

Potassium

This nutrient is necessary for the growth and maintenance of the body. It plays an essential part in helping the heart function. It also keeps a balance of the water between cells and body fluids. Without enough of this nutrient, you may experience muscular cramps, irregular heartbeat, and lung and kidney failure. For both adults and children, about 2000 milligrams are necessary per day. Some foods you can find potassium in are avocado, peas, and peanuts.

Sodium

Most people think of sodium as just salt. This however is not true; sodium comes in many other foods other than salt. It is used to regulate blood pressure, and helps muscles and nerves function correctly. Many people get much more sodium than they need, due to them pouring salt on their food to add more flavor. Different body types need different amounts, but instead of simply adding salt to the diet, how about trying other foods? While all fruits have sodium in them, passionfruit in particular contain a large amount. Many vegetables such as artichoke, broccoli, and squash contain sodium.

Fiber

Fiber can be found in cereal, vegetables, beans, and many other things. It helps with digestion and maintaining blood sugar levels. As you can find on many cereal boxes, it also reduces the risk of heart disease. Fortunately, there is no such thing as too much when it comes to fiber, so you can eat as much as you want. Just remember to get enough of the other nutrients as well.
Eating fruits and vegetables is the best way to obtain the natural nutrients your body needs. That is why they are so healthy. Just eliminate the extra sodium and you will be on your way to a healthy diet.

Mealtime Strategies: How to Have a Better Diet

Now that body image has become so important in society, many people are doing their best to lose weight and get that ideal figure. While dieting is sometimes effective, simply changing a few things in your meals can make a big difference. This article will give you a few tips on how to have healthier meals.

Breakfast: The most important meal of the day

Breakfast is the most important meal of the day. Skipping this meal does much more damage than you think it does. This meal provides you with the energy to go through the rest of your day. Many people skip this meal thinking that they would rather get more sleep or that they aren’t hungry. Nevertheless, grabbing something simple to eat rather than skipping is much more effective in helping your diet. People who tend to skip breakfast will end up snacking to stave off hunger, or end up eating much more than necessary at lunch. Your breakfast does not have to be a grand affair, rather something simple will suffice. Some easy breakfast suggestions are a bowl of cereal with low-fat milk, oatmeal with some fruit, or yogurt with fruit. As you can see, none of these are particularly complicated but each contain some important nutrients to keep you awake and ready throughout the day.

Lunch: Void the fats and eat healthy

Lunch can be a fattening time for many. For many people, whether they are at work or at school, a healthy lunch is hard to come by. Many people end up buying unhealthy lunches such as pizza or nachos. Instead of these unhealthy choices, why not try some better options. Packing your lunch is much better than buying it; not only does it save money and time, but you can also end up having a much healthier lunch. Your lunch does not have to be extravagant. A simple sandwich with whole wheat bread, fresh tomatoes, lettuce, and a slice of cheddar cheese plus an apple, can be a very healthy meal. You get many of the necessary nutrients and there is no unnecessary extra processing of the sandwich.

Dinner: Don’t over do it

Dinner should be the smallest meal of the day. Foods eaten after seven o’ clock are automatically is turned into reserve fat by your body. Make sure to eat less if you are concerned with weight loss. Dinner is the one time where you are at home and not in a rush, so you can take the time to make something nice if you like. A lightly sautéed salmon, with some grilled vegetables at the side, is a nice light dinner that will not leave you feeling bloated right before you sleep. If this dinner leaves you wanting more, you can always add some yogurt or fruit to your meal so that you get enough nutrients for the day.

Make sure to eat slowly.

The faster you eat, the less time your body has to process the food and in turn may lead you to eating more. If you eat slowly however, your body may sense that it is full before you think you are. This way, you can also lessen the amount of food you consume. Three meals and two snacks are important to have throughout the day, but it what you eat that counts.

What Foods Give you Energy

Throughout the day, people get tired and need an extra boost in their diet to wake them up so they can continue with their schedules. More often than not, people reach for the coffee, snacks, and energy drinks. However, these things are not the best choice when you want extra energy. They will only give you a short energy boost, leaving you tired once more when their effects wear off. These snacks fall under the category of simple carbohydrates. These carbohydrates are broken down easily, providing a quick spike in energy that fades quickly as well. On the other hand, complex carbohydrates and other nutrients are much harder to break down, providing a longer period of energy. So what foods provide the best energy boost and what else can you do to stay energized throughout the day? This article will give you a few examples.

Energy Foods

When looking for foods to give you energy, there are things to both look for and avoid. First of all, when you’re reaching for the snacks, check the nutrition facts. Is there an unnecessary amount of sugar in the snack? You can do better than that. A healthy energizing snack doesn’t have to be loaded with sweets. In fact, the key is to avoid things that are loaded with sugar, which cause your energy to peak up and then crash down, leaving you moodier than before. Focus on things like whole grains, nuts, protein with high levels of omega-3, and of course vegetables. You can grab a handful of almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts, or cashews. What about if you’re in the office or at school and you can’t reach these things easily? Don’t immediately reach for the candy bar. Instead, look for something a little healthier in a vending machine. For instance, sometimes vending machines have packs of nuts or trail mix. Many vending machines have baked chips now as well, which are a healthy alternative to normal chips. These are certainly better than that tempting chocolate muffin. If you can, pack a snack from home. Bringing an apple or some yogurt can give you the energy boost you needed to make it through the rest of the day.

Other Things to Do

If you really do not have access to a healthy snack and your energy level is dropping, there are a couple of things you can try. First of all, have you tried drinking water? Your hunger may be due to thirst. Furthermore, if you try drinking a glass of ice water, the temperature may shock you awake. You can also try chewing gum as well. Try a sugar free gum with a strong flavor. The chewing will prompt your body to start breaking down nutrients for energy. The flavor in your mouth will make it seem as if you’re eating something. If all other options just are not working and you desperately need something to wake you up, then it is time to go to the coffee pot. The caffeine will speed up your metabolism and give you an energy boost. Coffee also contains antioxidants which are good for you. The main problem with drinking coffee is that people tend to load it up with sugar and cream, making an originally good drink incredibly fattening and unhealthy. Drink your coffee black or at most w

Doctor Patient Relationship

Patients suffering from obesity often opt for administration of anorexigenic drugs in order to improve not so much their medical condition as the quality of life. Some patients feel chronically hungry and they hope that prescription of anorectics will help them relieve hunger. Is it really necessary to take these favorable weight loss consequences into consideration while calculating the benefit/risk ratio, even knowing that they are unrelated to the medical condition? It is a very complicated matter. There is no doubt that use of such drugs for non-health purposes makes patients think that they truly care for their health, but meanwhile it is very important not to groundlessly promise the patients sustained weight loss. Many patients hope that the treatment will result in considerable weight loss and marked improvement in the quality of life, but later on they get disappointed in therapy that doesn’t live up to their expectations.

It takes talent to maintain, on the one hand, realistic hopes of patients, inspiring their self-confidence, while honestly telling him, on the other hand, all pros and cons of drug treatment for obesity along with its challenges. Only realistic attitude towards hopes and aims will make the patient sign the informed consent form to receive treatment. In a series of clinical trials it was shown that a considerable amount of participants discontinue anorexigenic drugs in 1 – 2 years. The reasons of discontinuation are unknown, but it is possible that losing weight is not as rewarding as the participants thought it would be. Although there is every reason to take quality of life into consideration while calculating the benefit/risk ratio, it might not save the doctor or the patient from disappointment in therapy.

On the other hand, many doctors don’t challenge usefulness of Viagra for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, or the benefit of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for improvement of patients’ quality of life. Doctors take it for granted that such drugs indeed improve the quality of life.

Nevertheless, once the patients experiencing obesity note that without anorexigenic drugs they have a hard time sticking to a diet, the doctors will answer right away: “If you break the diet, administration of drugs will become useless”. It is hardly possible that the doctors will advice the patients to discontinue their anti-diabetic drugs only because the patients fail to stick to the diet. Then why do the same doctors rigidly urge the patients to comply with eating behavior requirements during administration of anorexigenic drugs? Is it really necessary to adhere to certain standards when taking such medicinal agents? If yes, what are the reasons?

Patient independence

Benefit/risk ratio of therapy is assessed not only by the doctor, but by the patient himself. An ethical principle of independence contemplates that the patient is an absolutely competent and independent participant in the treatment process entitled to make crucial health decisions. On the one hand, this principle can be observed in such a way that all doctor-patient decisions will be made solely by the patient. Many doctors rate this approach the best; meanwhile, the doctor is obliged to provide the patient with the information whereby he will be able to make a conscious decision; nevertheless, this is not the case when values and aims of a doctor should substitute those of a patient. The concept of patient independence seems especially essential when there is a hard decision to be made; for example, the decision on discontinuance of life-support therapy in a terminally ill patient. However, since it is possible to reduce the principles of benefit and non-harming to absurdity, there is always a chance that the doctor will be completely deprived of any rights and released of every liability for the therapy by giving all independence to the patient. Unfavorable consequences of absolute patient independence in view of therapy decisions were especially well-defined in the period of popularity of a drug called “fen-phen” (a combination of phentermine and fenfluramine). At that time many patients solicited doctors for prescription of this medicine. Some doctors refused as they believed the drugs were dangerous and not much useful. Other doctors observed the principle of patient independence and informed them on possible complications and treatment efficacy, so it rested with the patients to decide. When side effects of the treatment came to light, such doctors felt dissatisfied with their rightness and uncomfortable having allowed the patients to high-pressure them into prescribing the drugs while paying too little attention to their warnings.

It is possible that the concept of independence means a little more than just acknowledgment of the patient’s right to make individual decisions. In such a case both parties – a doctor and a patient – have the power of veto; the therapy should be conducted only by mutual consent, provided that this therapy has been approved and the benefit/risk ratio is favorable. The doctor has the right to refuse the treatment to the patient if the benefit/risk ratio is unfavorable; moreover, the doctor is to talk the patient out of such a therapy. On the contrary, when the treatment is justified, and when both parties tend to advantageously use their ability to make sound judgments in order to make the decision, then the doctor must insist on conducting the treatment, even if he knows that such treatment might lead to development of certain complications. A doctor together with a patient should jointly evaluate the benefit/risk ratio before such anorexigenic drugs are prescribed, and they should bear joint liability for their decision.

Informed consent

Speaking of benefit/risk ratio, a doctor assumes the most striking moral responsibility when it comes to the process of obtaining informed consent. On a daily basis, each doctor has to obtain informed consent forms of patients for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions; in the majority of cases it can be rather informal. However, in the period of “fen-phen” popularity, many doctors strived to evidence the patient’s visit with a written consent form. Certain documents were drawn up in such a way as to protect the doctor from possible prosecution. The essence of such documents laid not so much in insightful comparison of advantages and drawbacks of drugs, as in the waiver of the patient’s right to impose liability on the doctor for unfavorable outcome of the treatment. In other patient informed consent forms, advantages of the medicine were mentioned only superficially, but the drug-related risk was by all means emphasized. None of the documents releases the doctor from moral responsibility for obtained informed consent. The informed consent document can’t suspend the guilt of the doctor who “bears liability for the patient that places absolute confidence in a doctor and expects adequate care and treatment”. Neither ethical nor moral considerations entitle doctors to disclaim professional responsibility for the recommendations given to the patients. If drug therapy entails any complication, the blame partially rests on the doctor. If a potentially advantageous drug wasn’t prescribed due to incorrect benefit/risk ratio assessment, the doctor can be blamed for that, too. The informed consent document should provide the patient with accurate and reliable information concerning benefits and risks of a drug – no more, no less. There is every chance that the informed consent document is the best means to justify ethical responsibility undertaken by a busy family practitioner before a fully informed patient. Moreover, a doctor can familiarize the patient with the information bulletin, which contains clear and impartial list of drug-related benefits and risks and doesn’t need to be signed.

Professional ethics

What impact does the notion of professional ethics have on a decision to prescribe (or not to prescribe) anorexigenic drugs? In the medical field, professional ethics stipulates that the doctor prefers his patient’s interests to his personal interests. Loss of respect for doctors in public consciousness has one cause: doctors put personal financial well-being before patients’ needs. No one understands the primary motive of a doctor better than he does. Any doctor, who prescribes drug therapy for obesity in pursuit of his own income increase, violates professional ethics. Only some doctors practice such an approach intentionally, but it still might have a huge impact on the public opinion.

More often doctors believe that prescribed therapy fully complies with approved indications, but at the same time their practice is built in such a way as to yield as much profit as they can make. Certain methods of obesity treatment, offered by some clinics, do not contravene with professional ethics, but, nevertheless, the motives of attending physicians turn out to be strictly mercantile. For example: distribution of medicine during non-working hours in order to make a profit; reception of too many patients during the day, which makes it impossible to ensure proper doctor-patient contact; prescription of drugs regardless of conventional indications (for example, prescription of thyroid hormones to people with normal thyroid function, or prescription of diuretics solely for the purpose of losing weight); prescription of anorexigenic drugs to the patients that are unlikely to benefit from them (for example, teenagers or people with BMS <25). Such behavior of medical specialists makes us reflect on the true nature of their motivations.

Prescription of drugs in breach of indications and dose regimen

Contrary to the conventional wisdom of many patients, anorexigenic drugs are effective only while they are administered. But if you read package insert for phentermine and other earlier anorectics, you will see that the period of their administration should not exceed three months. In the USA, sibutramine was approved by the FDA for short-term use of no longer than 1 year, although its safety and efficacy had been established for up to two years. Thus, administration of phentermine for longer than 3 months, as well as use of sibutramine for more than 1 year contravenes with the dose regimen of these drugs established in the US. In a number of cases, off-label use of drugs not approved by the FDA USA entailed disease treatment enhancement (for instance, use of ß-blockers in angina or use of methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis). The drugs are often prescribed in breach of the recommended indications and dose regimen; sometimes it is justified, if the doctor is not trying to grind his own axe, and if the therapeutic effect is conceivable (even if its use is unapproved by the FDA USA). But such drug administration can cause negative attitude of colleagues, and in the event of complications it can even entail prosecution. Prescription of drugs not approved by the FDA USA can be admittedly justified, if such indications are well-thought, clearly explained to the patient and adequately documented.

Decision-making process

Some doctors never prescribe anorexigenic drugs. Others prescribe them at short notice. Such approaches are considered to be extreme; none of them should be recognized as true. A doctor should make an attempt to solve such issues based on the principles of professional ethics, identified by Edmund Pelligrino from the Center for Clinical Bioethics at Georgetown University Medical Center (USA) as “suppression of personal interests for the sake of a patient”. If you have any doubts, be sure to discuss them with your dear colleagues. Should they disapprove of your approach, you can enter into discussion in order to get to the heart of your dispute. In the end, every doctor has a moral right to treat the patient as he thinks fit, assuming full responsibility for his actions. The decision-making process is not always clear and simple. However, we can draw lessons from such experience and apply them to prescription of drugs for other medical conditions (although sometimes they are conducted without thinking).

7 Natural Weight Loss Supplements

Chromium Picolinate

Chromium picolinate is a dietary supplement that can be used as to increase body weight, so to decrease it. It enhances insulin effect, and it is called the “glucose tolerance factor”. In a randomized double-blind clinical trial, male and female students, enrolled for a 12-week body weight optimization program, were randomly assigned to receive either 200 g of chromium picolinate per day, or placebo.
Although every group showed slight increase in waist circumference and decrease in skin fold thickness, the only statistically significant difference concerning increase in body weight was observed to a larger extent in women receiving chromium picolinate as compared to other 3 groups of patients. These results were supported during the study conducted by Grant et al., that involved 43 obese women receiving 400 g of chromium picolinate per day. Increase in body weight was observed only until initiation of regular physical activity that promoted decrease in body weight and glucose-mediated insulin secretion.

In the study conducted by Pasman et al., body weight dynamics was compared between 200 g of chromium picolinate per day, or dietary fibers, caffeine, or 50 g of carbohydrates per day in 33 patients suffering from obesity. During the first two months, the participants were on a very low-calorie diet. It was revealed that administration of chromium picolinate didn’t have any impact on body weight. Walker et al., compared 200 g of chromium picolinate per day with placebo in terms of their effect on body weight and physical activity, if taken by 20 wrestlers during 14 weeks. Similar results were obtained by Campbell et al., during administration of 200 g of chromium picolinate per day by 18 men aged from 56 to 69 years who were engaged in physical fitness program requiring training equipment; the studies revealed no impact on body weight and force of the participants.
Animal tests for toxicity showed that there is a wide therapeutic dose range of food supplements containing chromium, but chromium picolinate doesn’t in any way affect human body composition, so it is absolutely ineffective as a treatment option for obesity.

Chitosan

Chitosan is acetylated chitin found in the exoskeleton of crustaceans (mainly in shellfish). Its use was suggested for the purposes of lipid binding (including cholesterol and triglycerides) in human intestine; it acts as a “fat-blocking agent”, and that is why administration of chitosan for weight reduction purposes seems quite justified. If chitosan is mixed with vegetable oil in a jar of water, it will absorb oil and precipitate, forming clear emulsion. This experiment is often used to prove the ability of chitosan to block fat absorption in the digestive tract and prevent obesity. It is promised to the patients that even if they don’t restrict fatty food intake, they still won’t experience body weight gain.

Efficacy of chitosan was studied in the course of two double-blind clinical trials. The participants were assigned to oral administration of 1200-1600 mg of chitosan 2 times per day. In the first trial, 51 obese female patients received the drug during 8 weeks; but their body weight didn’t reduce. In the second trial, 34 obese male and female patients received chitosan during 28 days; no dynamics in body weight optimization was seen either as compared to control group. In both trials, neither harsh side effects, nor any influence on metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins and iron was detected. It is possible that chitosan can reduce body weight by binding food lipids in the intestine, but it is not effective in recommended dosages.

Caffeine Ephedrine

As for the weight-loss medicine, ephedra alkaloids are the most widely used agents (ma huang preparation); it is believed that administration of such drugs ensures increase in energy consumption, which, in its turn, helps to reduce body weight. Recently, the information concerning side effects of such drugs came to light, and the FDA USA limited their dosages and duration of their administration.

Distribution of herb mixtures, containing caffeine, used for weight loss has become a tremendous industry. Caffeine found in phytopreparations has practically the same chemical composition as caffeine contained in pharmacological substances. Data from experimental studies in animals and people confirm the ability of caffeine to decrease body weight by activating oxygen consumption and fat oxidation.

Caffeine has been traditionally used in food supplements to treat headache and fatigability; its safety has been established. The FDA USA legalized sale of caffeine without prescription to people who reached 12 years of age as a stimulating agent (administration of up to 200 mg every 3 hours – 1600 mg/day) and as part of analgesics.

In a recent three-month study, the effect of 25 mg and 50 mg ephedrine three times a day was compared to that of placebo. The rate of weight loss was comparable between two dosages, but the incidence of adverse events (increase in blood pressure and heart rate, excitement, insomnia, headache, weakness, heartbeats, dizziness, euphoria, tremor, diarrhea) was higher with 10 mg of ephedrine a day than with placebo. At the end of the first and the second month, weight loss was more marked in the caffeine-treated group, but at the end of the third month the difference completely disappeared.
In a 24-week double-blind trial, the patients suffering from obesity were randomly assigned to receive 20 mg of ephedrine; 200 mg of caffeine; a combination of 20 mg of ephedrine and 200 mg of caffeine; or placebo 3 times/day. In ephedrine/caffeine combination therapy, body weight of patients started to decrease at week 8 and continued to reduce up to the very end of the follow-up period (17.5%); the results of ephedrine/caffeine monotherapies weren’t much different from the result of placebo administration. The incidence of adverse events (tremor, insomnia, dizziness) and arterial hypertension at week 8 was comparable between the groups. Two weeks after dechallenge, headaches and fatigability were observed more often in the combination therapy group. The participants were further enrolled in a 24-week follow-up study of caffeine and ephedrine, provided that the participants were aware of the drug they received. At week 50, body weight reduction persisted in ephedrine/caffeine combination group; anorexia is thought to account for 75% of this effect, while thermogenic activation explains the other 25%.

The studies were conducted to explain the mechanism of action of ephedrine in humans. Although it activates thermogenesis in rodents’ multilocular adipose tissue, such tissue is found in humans only to a certain extent, which explains the reasons why the effect of ephedrine is observed mostly in skeletal muscles. It was revealed that ephedrine decelerates gastric transit of food, which can account for anorexia development.
Ephedrine is traditionally available without prescription for treatment of bronchial asthma, while caffeine is used for drowsiness management. No toxic reactions were observed even in doses exceeding therapeutic dosages in phytopreparations containing ephedrine and caffeine, which are used for body weight reduction. In treatment of bronchial asthma, it is recommended to take 15 mg of ephedrine a day and 1600 mg of caffeine a day. In order to reduce body weight, no more than 100 mg of phytopreparations containing caffeine and ephedrine should be taken per day on pure ephedrine basis. Content of caffeine in phytopreparations varies, but the daily dosage doesn’t exceed 600 mg. Administration of the most preferred phytopreparations stipulates that only 240 mg of caffeine per day enters the body (which is equal to 3 cups of coffee).

Dietary Fibers

It is possible that abundance of obesity in industrially developed countries observed since 1990 is caused by alteration of dietary fiber composition: the percentage of dietary fibers consumed with starch-containing products decreased, while the percentage of fibers consumed with fruits and vegetables increased. The studies aimed at evaluation of interaction between the content of dietary fibers in food and body weight have been conducted since 1980. It was demonstrated that guar gum (water-soluble fibers) reduces the feeling of hunger and helps to manage body weight in a more efficient way than insoluble bran fiber, even in the absence of a special-purpose diet.

Relation between obesity and administration of dietary fibers was also assessed in epidemiological studies. When food intake frequency was studied using questionnaires, it was demonstrated that a diet developed for obese men contained more fat and less dietary fibers than the diet developed for men and women who are not experiencing obesity. In people with normal body weight, total consumption of dietary fibers was higher; the amount of dietary fibers on a 1000 kcal basis turned out to be in inverse proportion to the body mass index.

It has been proved that consumption of dietary fibers leads to decrease in total food volume, reducing the feeling of hunger; efficacy of water-soluble fibers is, probably, higher than efficacy of water-insoluble fibers. Administration of food supplements containing dietary fibers (5-40 g/day) ensures slight body weight loss (1 to 3 kg) more often than administration of placebo. Although weight reduction doesn’t reach 5% (the minimum effective therapeutic value), safety of administration of dietary fibers and their considerable positive impact on cardiovascular risk factors impel to add them to the weight-loss diets.

Garcinia Cambogia

Garcinia cambogia contains one of 16 isomers of citric acid – hydroxycitric acid obtained from gamboge fruits. It is the only substance capable of inhibiting citrate-lyase – the enzyme catalyzing the first non-mitochondrial stage of fatty acid synthesis. Efficacy and safety of hydroxycitric acid was studied in a series of clinical trials. Administration of 500 mg of Garcinia cambogia extract and 100 g of chromium picolinate 3 times per day was evaluated in an 8-week open clinical trial. At the end of the study, body weight of women decreased by 5.5%, and in men it reduced by 4.9%.

In the course of another cross-over clinical trial, 10 male patients were enrolled in order to evaluate energy consumption and intensity of body substrate oxidation. No differences were detected in respiratory quotient, energy consumption, the levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon, lactate, ß- hydroxybutyrate under rest or stress conditions.
The third randomized double-blind clinical trial (135 adult patients suffering from obesity; a high-fiber low-fat diet; a 12-week follow-up period) compared administration of 1500 mg of hydroxycitric acid per day with placebo; the rate of weight loss was comparable. On today’s market one can find a green food supplement containing hydroxycitric acid calcium salt; for the purposes of obesity treatment, its dosage should not exceed 3 g per day. In the course of experiments with rodents, it was shown that sodium hydroxycitric acid salt reduces the amount of consumed food and body fat percentage having no impact on protein metabolism. There is every reason to believe that inefficiency of hydroxycitric acid preparations in humans is associated either with insolubility of calcium salt, or with species differences between rodents and humans. It is necessary to conduct further investigations to solve the matter. As of today, it is possible to declare that food supplements containing vegetable-grade hydroxycitric acid have no impact on human obesity.

Green Tea Catechins

Green tea is made from leaves of the Camelia sinensis plant that were steamed and dried immediately after their collection. In Asia, they drink green tea all the time. Black tea is produced by enzymatic autoxidation of Camelia sinensis leaves, whereby catechins are almost completely transformed into tea flavins. Catechins belong to the family of substances containing a potent antioxidant – epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Catechins also activate adrenoreceptors of adipose cells, which might enhance sympathetic effect.
Since green tea extracts contain caffeine, it is difficult to distinguish between the impact of green tea and caffeine. In a study conducted by Dulloo et al., participants received green tea extract 3 times a day in the form of capsules containing 150 mg of caffeine and 375 mg of catechins (including 270 mg of EGCG); or 150 mg of pure caffeine; or they took placebo, and then they were kept in a calorimetric chamber for 3 days. Energy consumption in the first group was by 3.2% higher than in the second group, and by 4.5% higher than in the third group. Lipid oxidation was observed simultaneously. In general, administration of green tea increased energy consumption by 80 kcal per day. It is evident that the effect of green tea catechins alone is rather hard to define since there is a possibility of their synergetic interaction with ephedrine that is not dependent on caffeine. The last sentence requires further specification.

ß-Hydroxybutyrate

ß-hydroxybutyrate is a leucine metabolite used as a “fat burner” that induces muscle building and enhances muscular strength. According to the study conducted by Nissen et al., supplementary administration of 1.5-3 g of ß-hydroxybutyrate per day in the context of a body weight gaining program (2-6 weeks) decelerates catabolism in muscles and increases body weight (except for adipose tissue weight). However, such effect wasn’t seen in trained sportsmen. Although the trials conducted for 3-8 weeks established the safety of supplementary administration of ß- hydroxybutyrate, there is no evidence supporting the rationale of its use for the treatment of obesity.

How to Stay Fit by Going to the Gym just twice a Week

As much as we all admire those committed fitness fans who seem to manage a full workout every day, many of us simply don’t have the time to devote so many hours to the gym! If you’re juggling work, family and social commitments, it’s easy to leave fitness on the back burner, guiltily averting your eyes from your gym-addicted colleagues as they discuss cardio routines over the water cooler. However, as more research is done into the science behind staying in shape, it would seem those smug gym bunnies might not be all they seem!
In fact, when combined with a balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle, keeping your workout routine to a very manageable one or two sessions a week might be all you need to achieve the toned physique of which you’ve always dreamed.
Despite the high number of people who like to think their easy weight gain is due to having a genetically low metabolism, this is actually a fairly rare problem. However, whilst your metabolism is probably fairly normal, increasing it is not only easy, but it can also be one of the most important factors in keeping the weight off and staying in shape. Read on for three simple yet effective tips to help you kick-start your metabolism.

Keep it Hard – Keep it Quick

According to recent research from Colorado State University, the trick to a high metabolic rate isn’t frequent, low intensity workouts as we used to think. Instead, doing a short but intensive exercise routine just a couple of times a week can have a much more dramatic impact on your metabolism, preventing it from settling back down by varying your activity levels. What many may find surprising is that most of the fat burned from exercise does not occur during exercise but while you sleep! A short, hard routine, keeping your heart rate at 80% of its maximum rate for around 40 minutes, can raise your metabolism for up to 19 hours, with much of the fat-burning effect occurring during rest. Because of this, it’s important to ensure you get a full night’s sleep after exercising. Not only does this give your metabolism time to work, but being well rested makes you less likely to snack on high-energy, high calorific foods the following day.

Eat Healthily

We all know that exercise is nowhere near as effective if you combat its positive effects by eating lots of fatty foods! Complementing your exercise regime by eating healthy, balanced meals may seem obvious, but there are also several foods that have been proven to specifically increase your metabolism, thereby helping you to keep fit. For example, whilst eating any kind of protein-rich food is good for keeping you satisfied and energised, making you less likely to snack on sugary foods outside of meal times, eggs are particularly good for boosting your metabolism. Similarly, whilst herbal teas are generally accepted to be healthy substitutes for caffeinated tea and coffee, green tea is specifically good for increasing metabolic rate. Ensuring you consume enough vitamin C, vitamin D and omega 3 can also aid healthy weight loss.
That said, we can’t all be saints! If you do indulge in fatty or sugary foods now and again, try not to feel self-critical. Instead, when you decide to eat something particularly calorific, acknowledge that you are making a conscious decision to treat yourself, enjoy your food and then put in a little extra effort at the gym next time!

7 Tips tо Burn More Calories

These аrе јuѕt ѕоme ways yоu саn embrace tо start boosting your metabolism. You mаy havе heard stories of people whо havе lost dozens of pounds who simply switched to diet soda or walked a few minutes а day. These аrе all small habits thаt contribute to a big difference and bring yоur metabolism up. This will make weight loss easier аnd faster bу increasing thе metabolic rate аnd by burning mоre calories.

1. Eat More Protein

 
Protein requires а more complex chemical breakdown by yоur body tо be digested аnd uѕed as fuel. For example, 100 calories оf protein mау tаke up tо 30 calories іn thе process. Protein аlѕо takes longer to digest and helps stabilize blood sugar fоr longer periods of time аnd cаn helр prevent overeating during thе day. Eating а serving оf protein аt evеrу meal and аѕ part оf уour snacks сan increase thе total number of calories уоu burn еaсh day.

2. Spice it uр

  
Eating spicy foods саn speed uр your metabolism. Only half а teaspoon of cinnamon a day cаn help boost metabolism and kеep blood sugar levels under control. Is thе thought of cinnamon іn а cup of coffee in thе morning unpleasing? Try spicing things uр wіth cayenne pepper, ground red pepper оr wasabi.

3. Exercising With Weights

Weight training increases your metabolism in a number оf ways. Weight lifting wіll build muscle tissue. Muscle tissue is metabolically active, sо you burn the calories еvеn аt rest аnd helps to increase enzymes in thе burning оf fat in yоur body.

4. Eating Fat

 
If yоu want tо stay healthy and kееp thе fat off, you muѕt put it in fat. It nоt only tastes good, but it іs important to our body for it to work effectively. The consumption of morе servings of healthy fats on a daily basis will аctuаllу increase thе potential fоr calorie burning. Trying to cоntаіn thе fats lіkе flaxseed oil, hemp oil, olive oil, avocados, salmon, albacore tuna, nuts and seeds in yоur diet оn a daily basis.

5. Eat Little and Often

 
Evidence suggests thаt eating small meals evеrу 2-4 hours will keep уour metabolism burning faster than larger, lеsѕ frequent meals. When you eat small amounts оftеn yоur body is constantly working to digest and absorb food, which requires energy.

6. Moving More

 
Sedentary people burn about one-third fewer calories per day. Simply taking еvery opportunity tо move can make а dramatic difference in the amount оf calories you burn in a day. Small movements оvеr time accumulate а lot оf calories. The trick is tо kееp moving аll day. Write thе word “movement” on post-its and put thеm іn places that уоu notice whеn уоu’rе sitting still. Then, take еvery opportunity tо travel аnd hеrе are ѕоme ideas to burn extra calories:

  • Clench аnd release your muscles
  • Tap уоur feet
  • Change position
  • Swing уour legs
  • Wriggle and fidget
  • Pace up аnd down
  • Stand uр when уou’rе оn the phone аnd step from side to side
  • Stand uр and stretch
  • Use the restroom upstairs
  • Park іn thе furthest corner of the parking lot
  • Move уour head frоm side to side

7.Drinking Cold Water

Evidence has shown thаt уour body mіght burn mоrе calories by trying to raise cold water tо thе temperature of your body then іt dоеѕ wіth hot beverages. Also, bеіng wеll hydrated will helр your body’s metabolic processes burn quicker.